- Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) – a commonly employed method archaeologists use to explore the subsurface of an area that does not require excavations. GPR, a non-intrusive and non-destructive method, uses radar pulses to create images of the subsurface that indicate the location of potential anomalies.
- Ground-truthing – an archaeological process that allows image data collected by ground-penetrating radar to be related to real features and materials on the ground. This is an essential step of remote sensing and the proper interpretation and analysis of data collected from remote sensing methods.
- Soil stratum (plural: strata) – a layer of soil formed on the earth’s surface with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
Test units – a 1-by-2-meter square of ground excavated by archaeologists to record any artifacts or archaeological features that may be found in the soil.